Nanomaterials could also have adverse environmental impacts. Proper regulation should be in place to minimize any harmful effects. Because nanomaterials are invisible to the human eye, extra caution must be taken to avoid releasing these particles into the environment. Some preliminary studies point to possible carcinogenic (cancer-causing) properties of carbon nanotubes. Although these studies need to be confirmed, many scientists consider it prudent now to take measures to prevent any potential hazard that these nanostructures may pose. However, the vast majority of nanotechnology-based products will contain nanomaterials bound together with other materials or components, rather than free-floating Nano-sized objects, and will therefore not pose such a risk.
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
At the Center for Nanoscale Materials, research into biological-inorganic interfaces focuses on the design, synthesis, and characterization of novel amalgams that fuse biological and inorganic materials. The integration of “soft” biological and organic molecular assemblies with “hard” inorganic nano-architectures is of special interest because of the opportunity to combine normally disparate chemical and physical properties within a single system. This research will lead to the creation of entirely new classes of materials with tailored functionalities unattainable with individual components. For example, the robustness and catalytic and electronic reactivities of nanoscale inorganic materials can be combined with the responsiveness and molecular selectivity of biological molecules. Such nanostructured bio-inorganic amalgams can be applied in a broad range of areas, including
Computing, Artificial vision,
Biological intervention, and
Environmental sensing and remediation.
Key activities include
Nanostructured carbon-based materials and diamond nanoelectromechanical systems
Biosensors and devices
Manipulation of biomolecules by using nanoparticles
Complex fluids and membranes
Chemical assembly – directed/templated self-assembly
Nanoparticle synthesis of metals, semiconductors, and insulators
Nanomaterials for energy
X-ray, electron, neutron and photonic characterization
Theory and modeling
Specific targets include:
Catalysts that combine the reactivity of nanostructured inorganics with the selectivity and complexity of biological molecules
Hybrid nanocomposites that integrate biology with electronics
Functional nanostructured materials that facilitate biological energy storage and transduction
Actuators, transducers, and power sources that serve as active elements for supramolecular machines
Nanorobotics is the emerging technology field creating machines or robots whose components are at or close to the scale of a nanometre (10−9 meters). More specifically, nanorobotics refers to the nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots, with devices ranging in size from 0.1–10 micrometres and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. The names nanobots, nanoids, nanites, nanomachines, or nanomites have also been used to describe these devices currently under research and development.
Nanomachines are largely in the research and development phase, but some primitive molecular machines and nanomotors have been tested. An example is a sensor having a switch approximately 1.5 nanometers across, capable of counting specific molecules in a chemical sample. The first useful applications of nanomachines might be in nanomedicine. For example, biological machines could be used to identify and destroy cancer cells. Another potential application is the detection of toxic chemicals, and the measurement of their concentrations, in the environment. Rice University has demonstrated a single-molecule car developed by a chemical process and including buckyballs for wheels. It is actuated by controlling the environmental temperature and by positioning a scanning tunneling microscope tip.
Another definition is a robot that allows precision interactions with nanoscale objects, or can manipulate with nanoscale resolution. Such devices are more related to microscopy or scanning probe microscopy, instead of the description of nanorobots as molecular machine. Following the microscopy definition even a large apparatus such as an atomic force microscope can be considered a nanorobotic instrument when configured to perform nanomanipulation. For this perspective, macroscale robots or microrobots that can move with nanoscale precision can also be considered nanorobots.
According to Richard Feynman, it was his former graduate student and collaborator Albert Hibbs who originally suggested to him (circa 1959) the idea of a medical use for Feynman's theoretical micromachines (see nanotechnology). Hibbs suggested that certain repair machines might one day be reduced in size to the point that it would, in theory, be possible to (as Feynman put it) "swallow the doctor". The idea was incorporated into Feynman's 1959 essay There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom.
Since nanorobots would be microscopic in size, it would probably be necessary for very large numbers of them to work together to perform microscopic and macroscopic tasks. These nanorobot swarms, both those incapable of replication (as in utility fog) and those capable of unconstrained replication in the natural environment (as in grey goo and its less common variants[clarification needed]), are found in many science fiction stories, such as the Borg nanoprobes in Star Trek and The Outer Limits episode The New Breed.
Some proponents of nanorobotics, in reaction to the grey goo scenarios that they earlier helped to propagate, hold the view that nanorobots capable of replication outside of a restricted factory environment do not form a necessary part of a purported productive nanotechnology, and that the process of self-replication, if it were ever to be developed, could be made inherently safe. They further assert that their current plans for developing and using molecular manufacturing do not in fact include free-foraging replicators.
The most detailed theoretical discussion of nanorobotics, including specific design issues such as sensing, power communication, navigation, manipulation, locomotion, and onboard computation, has been presented in the medical context of nanomedicine by Robert Freitas. Some of these discussions remain at the level of unbuildable generality and do not approach the level of detailed engineering.
Main article: Biochip
The joint use of nanoelectronics, photolithography, and new biomaterials provides a possible approach to manufacturing nanorobots for common medical applications, such as for surgical instrumentation, diagnosis and drug delivery. This method for manufacturing on nanotechnology scale is currently in use in the electronics industry. So, practical nanorobots should be integrated as nanoelectronics devices, which will allow tele-operation and advanced capabilities for medical instrumentation.
Main article: DNA machine
Nubot is an abbreviation for "nucleic acid robot." Nubots are organic molecular machines at the nanoscale. DNA structure can provide means to assemble 2D and 3D nanomechanical devices. DNA based machines can be activated using small molecules, proteins and other molecules of DNA. Biological circuit gates based on DNA materials have been engineered as molecular machines to allow in-vitro drug delivery for targeted health problems. Such material based systems would work most closely to smart biomaterial drug system delivery, while not allowing precise in vivo teleoperation of such engineered prototypes.
A number of reports have demonstrated the attachment of synthetic molecular motors to surfaces. These primitive nanomachines have been shown to undergo machine-like motions when confined to the surface of a macroscopic material. The surface anchored motors could potentially be used to move and position nanoscale materials on a surface in the manner of a conveyor belt.
Nanofactory Collaboration, founded by Robert Freitas and Ralph Merkle in 2000 and involving 23 researchers from 10 organizations and 4 countries, focuses on developing a practical research agenda specifically aimed at developing positionally-controlled diamond mechanosynthesis and a diamondoid nanofactory that would have the capability of building diamondoid medical nanorobots.
This approach proposes the use of biological microorganisms, like the bacterium Escherichia coli. Thus the model uses a flagellum for propulsion purposes. Electromagnetic fields normally control the motion of this kind of biological integrated device. Chemists at the University of Nebraska have created a humidity gauge by fusing a bacteria to a silicone computer chip.
Retroviruses can be retrained to attach to cells and replace DNA. They go through a process called reverse transcription to deliver genetic packaging in a vector. Usually, these devices are Pol – Gag genes of the virus for the Capsid and Delivery system. This process is called retroviral Gene Therapy, having the ability to re-engineer cellular DNA by usage of viral vectors. This approach has appeared in the form of Retroviral, Adenoviral, and Lentiviral gene delivery systems. These Gene Therapy vectors have been used in cats to send genes into the genetic modified animal "GMO" causing it display the trait. 
A document with a proposal on nanobiotech development using open technology approaches has been addressed to the United Nations General Assembly. According to the document sent to the UN, in the same way that Open Source has in recent years accelerated the development of computer systems, a similar approach should benefit the society at large and accelerate nanorobotics development. The use of nanobiotechnology should be established as a human heritage for the coming generations, and developed as an open technology based on ethical practices for peaceful purposes. Open technology is stated as a fundamental key for such an aim.
In the same ways that technology development had the space race and nuclear arms race, a race for nanorobots is occurring. There is plenty of ground allowing nanorobots to be included among the emerging technologies. Some of the reasons are that large corporations, such as General Electric, Hewlett-Packard, Synopsys, Northrop Grumman and Siemens have been recently working in the development and research of nanorobots; surgeons are getting involved and starting to propose ways to apply nanorobots for common medical procedures; universities and research institutes were granted funds by government agencies exceeding $2 billion towards research developing nanodevices for medicine; bankers are also strategically investing with the intent to acquire beforehand rights and royalties on future nanorobots commercialization. Some aspects of nanorobot litigation and related issues linked to monopoly have already arisen. A large number of patents has been granted recently on nanorobots, done mostly for patent agents, companies specialized solely on building patent portfolio, and lawyers. After a long series of patents and eventually litigations, see for example the Invention of Radio or about the War of Currents, emerging fields of technology tend to become a monopoly, which normally is dominated by large corporations.
Main article: Nanomedicine
Potential applications for nanorobotics in medicine include early diagnosis and targeted drug-delivery for cancer, biomedical instrumentation, surgery, pharmacokinetics, monitoring of diabetes, and health care.
In such plans, future medical nanotechnology is expected to employ nanorobots injected into the patient to perform work at a cellular level. Such nanorobots intended for use in medicine should be non-replicating, as replication would needlessly increase device complexity, reduce reliability, and interfere with the medical mission.
Nanotechnology provides a wide range of new technologies for developing customized solutions that optimize the delivery of pharmaceutical products. Today, harmful side effects of treatments such as chemotherapy are commonly a result of drug delivery methods that don't pinpoint their intended target cells accurately. Researchers at Harvard and MIT, however, have been able to attach special RNA strands, measuring nearly 10 nm in diameter, to nano-particles, filling them with a chemotherapy drug. These RNA strands are attracted to cancer cells. When the nanoparticle encounters a cancer cell, it adheres to it, and releases the drug into the cancer cell. This directed method of drug delivery has great potential for treating cancer patients while avoiding negative effects (commonly associated with improper drug delivery). The first demonstration of nanomotors operating in living organism was carried out in 2014 at University of California, San Diego. MRI-guided nanocapsules are one potential precursor to nanorobots.
Another useful application of nanorobots is assisting in the repair of tissue cells alongside white blood cells. The recruitment of inflammatory cells or white blood cells (which include neutrophil granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and mast cells) to the affected area is the first response of tissues to injury. Because of their small size nanorobots could attach themselves to the surface of recruited white cells, to squeeze their way out through the walls of blood vessels and arrive at the injury site, where they can assist in the tissue repair process. Certain substances could possibly be utilized to accelerate the recovery.
The science behind this mechanism is quite complex. Passage of cells across the blood endothelium, a process known as transmigration, is a mechanism involving engagement of cell surface receptors to adhesion molecules, active force exertion and dilation of the vessel walls and physical deformation of the migrating cells. By attaching themselves to migrating inflammatory cells, the robots can in effect “hitch a ride” across the blood vessels, bypassing the need for a complex transmigration mechanism of their own.
In the United States, FDA currently regulates nanotechnology on the basis of size. The FDA also regulates that which acts by chemical means as a drug, and that which acts by physical means as a device. Single molecules can also be used as Turing machines, like their larger paper tape counterparts, capable of universal computation and exerting physical (or chemical) forces as a result of that computation. Safety systems are being developed so that if a drug payload were to be accidentally released, the payload would either be inert or another drug would be then released to counteract the first. Toxicological testing becomes convolved with software validation in such circumstances.With new advances in nanotechnology these small devices are being created with the ability to self-regulate and be ‘smarter’ than previous generations. As nanotechnology becomes more complex, how will regulatory agencies distinguish a drug from a device? Drug molecules must undergo slower and more expensive testing (for example, preclinical toxicological testing) than devices, and the regulatory pathways for devices are simpler than for drugs. Perhaps smartness, if smart enough, will someday be used to justify a device classification for a single molecule nanomachine. Devices are generally approved more quickly than drugs, so device classification could be beneficial to patients and manufacturers.
Jump up ^ Vaughn JR (2006). "Over the Horizon: Potential Impact of Emerging Trends in Information and Communication Technology on Disability Policy and Practice". National Council on Disability, Washington DC: 1–55.
Jump up ^ Ghosh, A.; Fischer, P. (2009). "Controlled Propulsion of Artificial Magnetic Nanostructured Propellers". Nano Letters 9 (6): 2243–2245. Bibcode:2009NanoL...9.2243G. doi:10.1021/nl900186w. PMID 19413293.
Jump up ^ Sierra, D. P.; Weir, N. A.; Jones, J. F. (2005). "A review of research in the field of nanorobotics". U.S. Department of Energy – Office of Scientific and Technical Information Oak Ridge, TN. SAND2005-6808: 1–50. doi:10.2172/875622.
Jump up ^ Tarakanov, A. O.; Goncharova, L. B.; Tarakanov Y. A. (2009). "Carbon nanotubes towards medicinal biochips". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology 2 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1002/wnan.69.
Jump up ^ Cerofolini, G.; Amato, P.; Asserini, M.; Mauri, G. (2010). "A Surveillance System for Early-Stage Diagnosis of Endogenous Diseases by Swarms of Nanobots". Advanced Science Letters 3 (4): 345–352. doi:10.1166/asl.2010.1138.
Jump up ^ Yarin, A. L. (2010). "Nanofibers, nanofluidics, nanoparticles and nanobots for drug and protein delivery systems". Scientia Pharmaceutica Central European Symposium on Pharmaceutical Technology 78 (3): 542. doi:10.3797/scipharm.cespt.8.L02.
Jump up ^ Amrute-Nayak, M.; Diensthuber, R. P.; Steffen, W.; Kathmann, D.; Hartmann, F. K.; Fedorov, R.; Urbanke, C.; Manstein, D. J.; Brenner, B.; Tsiavaliaris, G. (2010). "Targeted Optimization of a Protein Nanomachine for Operation in Biohybrid Devices". Angewandte Chemie 122 (2): 322. doi:10.1002/ange.200905200.
Jump up to: ab Patel, G. M.; Patel, G. C.; Patel, R. B.; Patel, J. K.; Patel, M. (2006). "Nanorobot: A versatile tool in nanomedicine". Journal of Drug Targeting 14 (2): 63. doi:10.1080/10611860600612862.
Jump up ^ Balasubramanian, S.; Kagan, D.; Jack Hu, C. M.; Campuzano, S.; Lobo-Castañon, M. J.; Lim, N.; Kang, D. Y.; Zimmerman, M.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J. (2011). "Micromachine-Enabled Capture and Isolation of Cancer Cells in Complex Media". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 50 (18): 4161. doi:10.1002/anie.201100115.
Jump up ^ Zyvex: "Self replication and nanotechnology" "artificial self replicating systems will only function in carefully controlled artificial environments ... While self replicating systems are the key to low cost, there is no need (and little desire) to have such systems function in the outside world. Instead, in an artificial and controlled environment they can manufacture simpler and more rugged systems that can then be transferred to their final destination. ... The resulting medical device will be simpler, smaller, more efficient and more precisely designed for the task at hand than a device designed to perform the same function and self replicate. ... A single device able to do [both] would be harder to design and less efficient."
Jump up ^ "Foresight Guidelines for Responsible Nanotechnology Development" "Autonomous self-replicating assemblers are not necessary to achieve significant manufacturing capabilities." "The simplest, most efficient, and safest approach to productive nanosystems is to make specialized nanoscale tools and put them together in factories big enough to make what is needed. ... The machines in this would work like the conveyor belts and assembly robots in a factory, doing similar jobs. If you pulled one of these machines out of the system, it would pose no risk, and be as inert as a light bulb pulled from its socket."
Jump up ^ Hill, C.; Amodeo, A.; Joseph, J. V.; Patel, H. R. (2008). "Nano- and microrobotics: How far is the reality?". Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 8 (12): 1891. doi:10.1586/1473718.104.22.1681.
Jump up ^ Cale, T. S.; Lu, J. Q.; Gutmann, R. J. (2008). "Three-Dimensional Integration in Microelectronics: Motivation, Processing, and Thermomechanical Modeling". Chemical Engineering Communications 195 (8): 847. doi:10.1080/00986440801930302.
Jump up ^ Montemagno, C.; Bachand, G. (1999). "Constructing nanomechanical devices powered by biomolecular motors". Nanotechnology 10 (3): 225–231. Bibcode:1999Nanot..10..225M. doi:10.1088/0957-4484/10/3/301.
Jump up ^ Douglas, Shawn M.; Bachelet, Ido; Church, George M. (17 February 2012). "A logic-gated nanorobot for targeted transport of molecular payloads". Science 335 (6070): 831–834. doi:10.1126/science.1214081.
Jump up ^ Carroll, G. T.; Pollard, M. M.; Van Delden, R.; Feringa, B. L. (2010). "Controlled rotary motion of light-driven molecular motors assembled on a gold film". Chemical Science 1: 97. doi:10.1039/C0SC00162G.
Jump up ^ Carroll, G. T.; London, G. B.; Landaluce, T. F. N.; Rudolf, P.; Feringa, B. L. (2011). "Adhesion of Photon-Driven Molecular Motors to Surfacesvia1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions: Effect of Interfacial Interactions on Molecular Motion". ACS Nano 5: 622. doi:10.1021/nn102876j.
Jump up ^ Martel, S.; Mohammadi, M.; Felfoul, O.; Zhao Lu; Pouponneau, P. (2009). "Flagellated Magnetotactic Bacteria as Controlled MRI-trackable Propulsion and Steering Systems for Medical Nanorobots Operating in the Human Microvasculature". The International Journal of Robotics Research 28 (4): 571. doi:10.1177/0278364908100924.
Jump up ^ Berry, V.; Saraf, R. F. (2005). "Self-assembly of nanoparticles on live bacterium: An avenue to fabricate electronic devices". Angewandte Chemie International 44 (41): 6668–6673. doi:10.1002/anie.200501711.
Jump up ^ Jha, Alok (11 September 2011). "Glow cat: fluorescent green felines could help study of HIV". the Guardian.
Jump up ^ Cavalcanti, A. (2009). "Nanorobot Invention and Linux: The Open Technology Factor – An Open Letter to UNO General Secretary" (PDF). CANNXS Project 1 (1): 1–4.
Jump up ^ Das, S.; Gates, A. J.; Abdu, H. A.; Rose, G. S.; Picconatto, C. A.; Ellenbogen, J. C. (2007). "Designs for Ultra-Tiny, Special-Purpose Nanoelectronic Circuits". IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers 54 (11): 2528. doi:10.1109/TCSI.2007.907864.
Jump up ^ Kurzweil, R., Systems and Methods for Generating Biological Material, WIPO Patent WO/2007/001962, 2007.
Jump up ^ Murday, J. S.; Siegel, R. W.; Stein, J.; Wright, J. F. (2009). "Translational nanomedicine: Status assessment and opportunities". Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 5 (3): 251. doi:10.1016/j.nano.2009.06.001.
Jump up ^ Ispir, M., Oktem, L., Method and apparatus for using entropy in ant colony optimization circuit design from high level synthesis, US Patent US8296711 B2, 2010.
Jump up ^ Scheufele, D. A.; Lewenstein, B. V. (2005). "The Public and Nanotechnology: How Citizens Make Sense of Emerging Technologies". Journal of Nanoparticle Research 7 (6): 659–667. doi:10.1007/s11051-005-7526-2.
Jump up ^ Morrison, S. (2008). "The Unmanned Voyage: An Examination of Nanorobotic Liability" (PDF). Albany Law Journal of Science & Technology 18 (229).
Jump up ^ Zyga, Lisa (December 5, 2007) "Virtual 3D nanorobots could lead to real cancer-fighting technology". physorg.com.
Jump up ^ Leary, S. P.; Liu, C. Y.; Apuzzo, M. L. J. (2006). "Toward the Emergence of Nanoneurosurgery: Part III???Nanomedicine: Targeted Nanotherapy, Nanosurgery, and Progress Toward the Realization of Nanoneurosurgery". Neurosurgery 58 (6): 1009. doi:10.1227/01.NEU.0000217016.79256.16.
Jump up to: ab Bhowmik, Debjit (2009). "Role of Nanotechnology in novel Drug Delivery system" (PDF). Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology 1 (1): 20–35.
Jump up ^ Gao, W.; Dong, R.; Thamphiwatana, S.; Li, J.; Gao, W.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J. (2015). "Artificial Micromotors in the Mouse's Stomach: A Step towardin Vivo Use of Synthetic Motors". ACS Nano 9 (1): 117–23. doi:10.1021/nn507097k. PMC 4310033. PMID 25549040.
Jump up ^ Vartholomeos, P.; Fruchard, M.; Ferreira, A.; Mavroidis, C. (2011). "MRI-Guided Nanorobotic Systems for Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications". Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 13: 157–84. doi:10.1146/annurev-bioeng-071910-124724.
Jump up to: ab Casal, Arancha et al. (2004) "Nanorobots As Cellular Assistants in Inflammatory Responses". nanorobotdesign.com
Jump up to: ab Smith, RR; Lodder, RA (2013). "When does a Nanotechnology Device Become a Drug? Size Versus Smarts". J Dev Drugs 2: e121. doi:10.4172/jdd.1000e121 (inactive 2015-03-08).